Film

18/01/2019

Groupe :

CREER UN FILM – PROJET ERASMUS+

Phase 1 : Qu’est-ce qu’un court métrage ?

Phase 2 : Écriture du synopsis

Thème :

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Genre :

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Situation initiale (une lettre étrange, l’arrivée d’un nouvel élève, l’organisation d’un évènement, la rentrée des classes…) :

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Groupe :

À partir de l’idée de départ, on développe le synopsis, c’est-à-dire l’histoire racontée en une page. C’est un résumé du court-métrage, sa structure, son squelette. C'est à partir de ce petit texte que va se développer le scénario.

Attention ! Le synopsis n'est pas un résumé du film! Ce sont seulement les moments intéressants et le synopsis doit donner envie  au lecteur de voir le film.

QUI?  (Les personnages principaux: le héros, le méchant) : 

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 QUAND? OU? (cadre spatio-temporel de l'histoire) :

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QUOI? (On met en avant le conflit, le nœud de l'histoire)

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POURQUOI? (Expliquer ce qui justifie l'histoire, le film. Révéler quelques éléments clés) :

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Titre du court métrage :

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The eight intelligences

17/01/2019

The linguistic intelligence refers to the ability to use words in an effective way. As Thomas Armstrong (2009: 9) put it, ‘This intelligence includes the ability to manipulate the syntax or structure of language, the phonology or sounds of language, the semantics or meanings of language, and the pragmatic dimensions or practical uses of language.’

The linguistic intelligence (sometimes called ‘word smart’) is the intelligence our culture and school system mainly focuses on. It involves learning and being able to speak languages, the use of rhetoric, holding speeches in order to convince people, mnemonics, using language to remember information, and last but not least, using language for the sake of it: creating literature.

A learner who possesses a high linguistic intelligence has greatly developed skills for speaking, reading and writing. Furthermore, these learners tend to think in words, sometimes even in another language than their native one. Linguistic learners find great pleasure in learning new words, creating puns and linguistically based humor. According to Howard Gardner, writers, poets, lawyers and public speakers are the ones who possess high linguistic intelligence.

People possessing a high logical-mathematical intelligence exhibit great sensitivity to logical patterns, have the ability to reason well and the capacity to use numbers effectively. Howard Gardner thinks they have the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. ‘The kinds of processes used in the service of logical-mathematical intelligence include categorization, classification, inference, generalization, calculation, and hypothesis testing’ says Thomas Armstrong (2009: 6)

Furthermore, it can be said that a logical- mathematical learner likes to think about cause- effect problems and to make abstractions. These learners are very organized, systematic, able to consider a problem from different points of view and would always accept the challenge of a complex problem. In the majority of cases they come up with a solution to a problem before it is articulated, meaning after considering the problem for a certain amount of time, these individuals ‘know’ the answer before actually putting it on paper. These people possess what Gardner labeled as ‘scientific thinking’. (2006: 25)

Spatial intelligence involves the ability to ‘perceive the visual-spatial world accurately and to perform transformations upon those perceptions’. (Armstrong, 2009: 7) This intelligence relies heavily on colors, maps, images, shapes, pictures and the relationships that exist between these elements.

On a biological level, this intelligence can be explained through the fact that the right-brain is predisposed to be comfortable with processing information via visual stimuli. Learners retain information best if it is highlighted, structured into mind- maps, graphic organizers, drawn or even animated.

The bodily-kinesthetic intelligence is defined as ‘expertise in using one’s whole body to express ideas and feelings’ (Armstrong, 2009: 6) but also creating a new product is ‘evidence of the cognitive features of body usage’. (Gardner 2006: 24) Although this is one of Gardner’s most controversial multiple intelligences, Gardner argues that there are ‘specific computations required to solve a particular bodily- kinesthetic problem’. (2006: 24) Individuals, who display the bodily- kinesthetic intelligence as their dominant intelligence (e.g. surgeons, sculptors, actors, athletes, dancers), all possess specific physical skills like balance, good sense of coordination, speed, and special tactile capacities.

Having the auditory/ musical intelligence as a dominant intelligence means that the individual displays exceptional rhythmic abilities, but it also means that they respond sensitively to any sound be that of music, birds chirping, or even traffic noises. As Thomas Armstrong put it, the musical intelligence is ‘the capacity to perceive (e.g., as a music aficionado), discriminate (e.g., as a music critic), transform (e.g., as a composer), and express (e.g.,as a performer) musical forms.’ (2009: 6)These individuals are very responsive to sound vibes and acquire information best if the learning takes place through singing, humming, tapping, chanting.

Interpersonal intelligence builds on a core capacity to notice distinctions among others - in particular, contrasts in their moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions.’ (Gardner, 2006: 30) Individuals who possess a high level of interpersonal intelligence are capable of perceiving and distinguishing between the moods, feelings, intentions and motivations of other people, even if those are intentionally hidden from others. Armstrong (2009: 8) believes that ‘this can include sensitivity to facial expressions, voice, and gestures; the capacity for discriminating among many different kinds of interpersonal cues; and the ability to respond effectively to those cues in some pragmatic way (e.g., to influence a group of people to follow a certain line of action).’

People displaying a high level of interpersonal intelligence have also been called “ people smart” individuals as they base their work on understanding other people. These individuals are very sensitive to their partners’ change in mood and as they possess good communicational skills, they can always negotiate towards a favorable outcome.

The intrapersonal intelligence on the other hand, is what Gardner (2006: 33) explains as  ‘knowledge  of the internal aspects of a person: access to one’s own feeling life, one’s range of emotions, the capacity to make discriminations among these emotions and eventually to label them and to draw on them as a means of understanding and guiding one’s own behavior.’

Individuals who display a higher level of intrapersonal intelligence have an accurate picture of themselves, of their own strengths and limitations. These people are aware of their desires, emotions, motivations and exhibit great capacity for self – discipline. The self smart learners think in terms of their role and place in everything, which means that they are self- aware. The intrapersonal learner perceives, processes and produces information best if they are allowed to proceed at their own pace and on their own.

Nevertheless, this intelligence is the one which usually needs another intelligence to be noticed. Consequently, it is either the musical, linguistic or even mathematical intelligence which will help it to be externalized. A good example to this is Virginia Woolf and the stream of consciousness she uses a technique to externalize her thoughts and feelings in her novels.

The idea of the naturalist intelligence came only later when the scholar was trying to explain which category would people like Charles Darwin belong to. This intelligence presumes the existence of an inborn ability to distinguish between diverse plants, animals, mountains, or identify different species.

The scholar argued that this distinction does not solely rely on one’s visual capacities, but it would also entail auditory perception or sense of touch. In the past, people very much depended on this type of intelligence as it would have cost their lives if they had not been able to make a difference, for example, between poisonous mushrooms or edible ones. In his book (2006 ) it is also suggested that nowadays one would not expect it, but we still depend on our naturalist intelligences. As members of a consumer society we must distinguish between different products on a daily basis.

Gardner believes that in every person’s life there is a crystallizing moment when the individual recognizes the “instrument” they are connected with. He offers as examples the case of Babe Ruth, Yehudi Menuhin, T.S. Eliot and many others who experience and recognize for the first time in their lives a perfect flow of their energies. These important moments are labeled by Csikszentmihalyi as ‘the flow’, ‘the optimal experience’. (1991: 21) These are the moments when, while helping out his father, the child recognizes how much pleasure he feels during planting seeds, trees, taking care of animals. Or these are the moments, when the child experiences that optimal flow of energy while she teaches a younger sister how to write, or the feeling they live through while singing in the bathroom, or completing an excellent drawing.

On the other hand, Gardner and  Armstrong (2009: 30) also discuss the idea of ‘paralyzing experiences’ which are often filled with negative feelings such as anger, shame, guilt, that prevent the development or growth of a certain intelligence. Both the ‘crystallizing’ and ‘paralyzing’ experiences depend on whether the individual had access to a great mentor, had a caring familiar background, was born to the right place in the right time. A 10-year-old Syrian musical genius, for example, would be in a very difficult position in today’s circumstances.

 It is, furthermore, important to mention that the historical- cultural factors also play an important role in the development of the individual. As it is known, there are geniuses, such as Columbus, displaying different kinds of intelligences who were not understood by the society of their times.

This great scholar furthermore argues that all human beings are born with a multiplicity of intelligences and that these intelligences are not interdependent but they do not operate in isolation, either. Not being able to write poems or lyrics for songs does not exclude the possibility of being an excellent musician or mathematician. According to Gardner, ‘intelligences always work in concert, and any sophisticated adult role will involve a melding of several of them’. (2006: 21)

Gardner believes that all human beings possess the full range of existing intelligences which are combined in every individual in a unique way, and that is what makes us human. Theoretically, it would be possible to develop each intelligence to the highest level of competency, but this is very unlikely. However, they could be developed to a reasonably high level of performance, if all the necessary circumstances are given: meaning a devoted parent, a great mentor, suitable socio-cultural and historical background.

As Armstrong (2009: 16)  put it, the intelligences work together in complex ways, the do not exist in isolation: ‘the intelligences have been taken out of context in MI theory only for the purpose of examining their essential features and learning how to use them effectively.’ Furthermore, it is interesting to know that ‘having a strong intelligence does not mean that one necessarily acts intelligently.’ (Gardner, 2006: 41) It is the human free will which allows individuals to decide how they manage their intelligences. This is why some people use their extraordinary mathematical capacities to come up with new inventions, while others use it to win a poker match.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                ACTIVITIES  TO  ENHANCE  INTELLIGENCES

 

The visual/ spatial learner

Predominantly visual learners acquire information best if they are provided with pictures, handouts, if they use color coding. When it comes to organizing information, it is best for them to use mind maps, graphic organizers, charts, diagrams. If teacher talk is accompanied by videos or pictures, learning is more successful.

They have the  ability to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately (e.g., as a hunter, scout, or guide) and to perform transformations upon those perceptions (e.g., as an interior decorator, architect, artist, or inventor). This intelligence involves sensitivity to color, line, shape, form, space, and the relationships that exist between these elements. It includes the capacity to visualize, to graphically represent visual or spatial ideas, and to orient oneself appropriately in a spatial matrix. (according to Thomas Armstrong)

The auditory/ musical learner

Learners whose dominant intelligence is the auditory one learn best if they practice the material to be learnt either with a partner or with an imaginary person. It is also helpful for them to record the material and later to listen to it until they are confident about it. They remember information better if they are given the chance to participate orally.

They have the capacity to perceive (e.g., as a music aficionado), discriminate (e.g., as a music critic), transform (e.g., as a composer), and express (e.g., as a performer) musical forms. This intelligence includes sensitivity to the rhythm, pitch or melody, and timbre or tone color of a musical piece. One can have a figural or “top-down” understanding of music (global, intuitive), a formal or “bottom-up” understanding (analytic, technical), or both. ( according to Thomas Armstrong)

 

 

The bodily-kinesthetic learner

Kinesthetic learner perceives and produces information best if they link tactile or whole body movement to it. They are the type of people who actually learn by doing.

They have expertise in using one’s whole body to express ideas and feelings (e.g., as an actor, a mime, an athlete, or a dancer) and facility in using one’s hands to produce or transform things (e.g., as a craftsperson, sculptor, mechanic, or surgeon). This intelligence includes specific physical skills such as coordination, balance, dexterity, strength, flexibility, and speed, as well as tactile, and haptic capacities. The following activities are helpful mainly for primarily kinesthetic learners, however, as I have already mentioned above, intelligences cannot be seen separately. (according to Thomas Armstrong)

 

The verbal/ linguistic learner

Taking into consideration the way teachers usually teach and what the curriculum demands, I can say that it is the verbal- linguistic learner whose needs are mostly catered for in almost all subjects. The other type of learner who is also in a lucky situation is the auditory one as the teaching- learning process is mainly about talking and listening.

These learners have the capacity to use words effectively, whether orally (e.g., as a storyteller, orator, or politician) or in writing (e.g., as a poet, playwright, editor, or journalist). Some of these uses include rhetoric (using language to convince others to take a specific course of action), mnemonics (using language to remember information), explanation (using language to inform), and meta-language (using language to talk about itself). This intelligence includes the ability to manipulate the syntax or structure of language, the phonology or sounds of language, the semantics or meanings of language, and the pragmatic dimensions or practical uses of language. (according to Thomas Armstrong)

As I have already mentioned above, there is no such thing as an activity which caters for only one intelligence: all activities appeal to other intelligences also.

The intrapersonal learner

Learners who have a highly developed intrapersonal intelligence value a lot if they are given time for self- reflection, independent work and quiet time. This is why they like writing journals more than other type of learners and they prefer to carry out assignments independently (as a homework: keep diaries, create visual poems etc.) Such learners are very good at self assessment: they can judge their own strengths and weaknesses quite precisely.

A 8 inteligencia

17/01/2019

1. Nyelvi intelligencia: azok a személyek akiknek ez a domináns intelligenciájuk képesek beszédet tartani emberek előtt, jó a meggyőző képességük, hamar tanulnak idegen nyelveket, szívesen játszanak a szavakkal, azaz irodalmi műveket alkotnak. (Regény, vers, novella) Örömüket nyerik szójátékok alkotásában. Belőlük lesznek a költők, írók, ügyvédek, tanárok, papok stb.

2. Fejlett logikai matematikai intelligenciával rendelkező személyek könnyen értelmezik a logikai sémákat, észre veszik a sémákat, könnyen vonnak le következtetéseket, kategorizálnak, általánosítanak és elméletekkel kísérleteznek. Sokszor gondolkodnak ok-okozati problémákon, elvont kérdéseken. Ezek a személyek rendszerezettek, szisztematikusak, képesek arra, hogy egy problémát különböző szemszögből közelítsenek meg. Mindig vállalják a kihívásokat, könnyen találnak megoldásokat problémákra.

3. Vizuális (tér) intelligencia: ezek a személyek életében fontosak a színek, térképek, alapzatok, képek és az ezek közötti kapcsolatok.

4. Kinesztetikus intelligencia “tulajdonosai“ egész testüket használják érzéseik és gondolataik kifejezésére. Ezen egyének számára megfelelő karrierek: sebész, szobrász, szinész, atléta, táncos, mivel jó egyensúly érzékkel, koordinációs képességgel, gyorsasággal és finom motorikus képességgel rendelkeznek.

5. Zenei/Auditív intelligencia magába foglalja, az egyén azon képességét, hogy érzékenyen reagál hangokra, legyen zene, madár csicsergés avagy közlekedési hangzavar. Ezen egyének jól reagának a hanghullámokra és legjobban akkor gyűjtenek információt, ha a tanulást zene, dobolás, dúdolás vagy rímbe szedés kíséri.

6. Az interperszonális intelligencia, az egyének azon képességeire alapszik, hogy különbséget tudnak tenni az emberek lelki állapotaik, vérmérsékletük, motivációjuk és szándékuk között. Azon személyek akik magas interperszonális intelligenciával rendelkeznek, érzékenyek az emberek különböző arc kifejezéseikre, hangnemükre. Könnyen megértik az embereket, jó kommunikációs és tárgyaló készséggel rendelkeznek.

7. Az intraperszonális intelligencia, önmagunk ismeretét jelenti: tudatos érzelmek és érzések. Ezen emberek tisztában vannak saját erősségeikkel és gyengeségeikkel. Képesek kordában tartani érzéseiket, sóvárgásaikat, motivációjaikat; önkontrollt gyakorolnak. Ezen személyek leginkább akkor tudnak fejlődni ha a saját ritmusukban haladhatnak. Ez az intelligencia nem tud megnyílvánúlni más intelligencia jelenléte nélkül: Pl. nyelvi, zenei vagy éppen logikai-matematikai intelligenciára van szükség, hogy megnyílvánúlhassanak.( Jó példa erre Virginia Wolf és a Stream of Consciousness technika. )

8. Naturalista intelligencia, csak később került a listára, amikor Power Gardner megpróbálta megmagyarázni, hogy melyik kategóriába tartozik Carles Darwin. Ez az intelligencia feltételezi, azt a velünk született képességet, hogy külömbséget tegyünk, külömböző növények, állatok, hegyek stb. között. A múltban ez az intelligencia nagyon fontos volt pl. külömbséget tenni mérgező és nem mérgező gomba fajták között. A modern világban is szükségünk van erre, az üzletben található külömböző áruk megvásárlása esetében.

Fontos megemlíteni, hogy minden egyén rendelkezik mindegyik intelligenciával, bizonos szintig, valamint az intelligenciák nem léteznek elkülönítve.

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